Ibn Barrajan (d. 1141), who a student and friend of Ibn al-‘Arif, lived and taught in Seville but was originally from North Africa, has been called the Ghazali of the West. Though commonly mistaken for a Moslem sect, the Sufis are at home in all religions: just as the "Free and Accepted Masons" lay before them in their Lodge whatever sacred book—whether Bible, Koran, or Torah—is accepted by the temporal State. , Although Sufism would no longer directly be a part of Andalusi life after the Catholic Monarchs expelled Muslims from Spain, in the Spanish Christian mystics of the sixteenth century, such as San Juan de la Cruz and Teresa of Avila, many have seen Sufism's lasting influence in Spain. Learn more.  His work helped Sufism become more accepted within the Islamic sciences. "The conquest of India by Babur in 1526 gave considerable impetus to the Naqshbandiyya order" . History of Sufism.  The Sufi shine at Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nizamuddin Auliya in Delhi, Ashraf Jahangir Semnani in Kichaucha Shariff belong to this order. In the medieval Indian environment Sufism was the most interesting aspect of Islam. , Beginning in the 9th century and continuing throughout the 10th century, al-Andalus was home to fairly strict, orthodox beliefs and practices. Sufism takes away the boundaries which divide different faiths by bringing into full light the underlying wisdom in which they are all united. Turkic conquests in South Asia were accompanied by four Sufi mystics of the Chishtiyya order from Afghanistan: Moinuddin (d. 1233 in Ajmer), Qutbuddin (d. 1236 in Delhi), Nizamuddin (d.1335 in Delhi) and Fariduddin (d.1265 in Pakpattan now in Pakistan) . We find among the Zoroastrians, Hatim, the best known Sufi of his time. Though awareness of this secret quality or instinct can be sharpened by close contact with Sufis of experience, there are no hierarchical degrees among them, only a general undisputed recognition of greater or lesser capacity. Origins: In its early stages of development Sufism effectively referred to nothing more than the internalization of Islam. Bridging the gulf between the Islamic clerics and Sufis, Wali Ullah infused new vigour in practice of Naqshbandi Sufi order. Hujwiri, in the eleventh century, presented several views of the origin of the term, “Sufi”. The European historian sometimes traces the history of Sufism by noticing the actual occurrence of this word and by referring only to those schools which have definitely wished to be known by this name. History and theology History and theology.  Many have asserted Sufism to be unique within the confines of the Islamic religion, and contend that Sufism developed from people like Bayazid Bastami, who, in his utmost reverence to the sunnah, refused to eat a watermelon because he did not find any proof that Muhammad ever ate it. Mystical ideas are unintelligible to the generality of people. Almost all existing Sufi orders today trace their roots and chain of transmission ( silsila ) back to Muhammad, via one of these orders. Two of the most notable are Kashf al-Mahjûb (Revelation of the Veiled) of Hujwiri, and Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya (The Message) of Al-Qushayri. According to one perspective, it is directly from the Qur’an, constantly recited, meditated, and experienced, that Sufism proceeded, in its origin and its development. Mystics of this period meditated on the Doomsday passages in the Quran, thereby earning such nicknames as "those who always weep."  With Ibn Masarra there was a “brief flowering” of Sufism in Spain, and later Spanish Sufis reflected his influence on them. Some sources state that Sufism is the inner dimensions of the teachings of Muhammad whereas others say that Sufism emerged during the Islamic Golden Age from about the 8th to 10th centuries. II, Rizvi, Page 259). Other noteworthy Sufi teachers who were active in the West include Bawa Muhaiyaddeen, Inayat Khan, Nazim Al-Haqqani, Javad Nurbakhsh, Bulent Rauf, Irina Tweedie, Idries Shah and Muzaffer Ozak. Abu l-‘Abbas ibn al-‘Arif (1088-1141) was one of the most prominent Sufis in Spain and one of the earliest ones during Sufism's peak in the peninsula. The Suhrawardiyyah order of Sufism gained popularity in Bengal. Even though Sufi Saints had existed even before Prophet Muhammad, they were not known or recognised as Sufis at that that time.  Ibn Tufail introduced the element of Sufism into this philosophical way of thinking. See Introduction in "Great Sufi Poets of The Punjab" by R. M. Chopra, 1999, Iran Society, Calcutta. Sufism as a brother/sisterhood may be traced back as far as the period of Daniel. Victor Danner - "The Islamic Tradition: An introduction."  According to Ibn ‘Arabi, the main practices of Andalusi Sufis included ascesis, poverty, and devotion to the Qur’an.  Modern academics and scholars,[which?] This explains why the Muslim Rumi has Christian, Zoroastrian and other disciples; why the great Sufi 'invisible teacher' Khidr is said to be a Jew; why the Mogul Prince Dara Shikoh identified Sufi teachings in the Hindu Vedas, yet himself remained a member of the Qadiri Order; how Pythagoras and Solomon can be said to be Sufi teachers. Sufism is the mystical branch of Islam. The word ‘Sufi’ derives its name from another Arabic word ‘Suf which means wool. Numerous other traditions link him with the Sufis, and it was in Sufi style that he ordered his followers to respect all People of the Book, meaning those who respected their own sacred scriptures—a term later taken to include Zoroastrians. Sufism Islamic mysticism, often referred to as the internalization and intensification of Islamic faith and practice. Sufi orders are based on the bay‘ah (بَيْعَة bay‘ah, مُبَايَعَة mubāya‘ah 'pledge, allegiance') that was given to Muhammad by his Ṣahabah. The calamity through which the world has lately passed, and the problems of the present difficult situations are due to the existence of boundaries; this fact is already clear to many. The Origin of the School of Sufism. The following article is taken from the journal Sufism: An Inquiry.. A majority of scholars believe that the word “Tasawouf” derives from the word “suf”, which means wool. Indeed, most Sufis in the world today are Muslim and many of them would consider a non-Islamic Sufism impossible. The roots and practices of Sufism. In the 20th century some more modernist Muslims have called Sufism a superstitious religion that holds back Islamic achievement in the fields of science and technology.. The first stage of Sufism appeared in pious circles as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad period (661–749). There is disagreement among religious scholars and Sufis themselves about the origins of Sufism. 1 The Origin and Evolution of Sufism By Dr. Farida Khanam Sufism (tasawwuf) is the name given to mysticism in Islam. Chopra, R. M., "SUFISM" (Origin, Growth, Eclipse, Resurgence), 2016, Anuradha Prakashan, New Delhi.  Some Sufis were not against absorbing ideas from Hinduism for their devotional songs with Sufism playing the primary role as a point of contact between Hinduism and Islam.189 This conversion left many of those who converted via Sufism more Hindu in practice than Muslim.194. Sufi schools have indeed gathered around particular teachers, but there is no graduation and they exist only for the convenience of those who work to perfect their studies by close association with fellow Sufis.  Ibn al-‘Arif's disciple Ibn Qasi set up a group of religious followers in Portugal and built a monastery in Silves.  Notable as well are the lives of Amadou Bamba and Hajj Umar Tall in sub-Saharan Africa, and Sheikh Mansur Ushurma and Imam Shamil in the Caucasus region. Orientalists proposed a variety of origin theories regarding Sufism, such as that it originated as an Aryan response to Semitic influence, Buddhism, Neo-Platonism, and Christian ascetism or Gnosticism. Some sources state that Sufism is the inner dimensions of the teachings of Muhammad whereas others say that Sufism emerged during the Islamic Golden Age from about the 8th to 10th centuries. , By the twelfth century, shifts towards the acceptance—or at least tolerance—of philosophy and Sufism into what had previously been strictly orthodox beliefs were occurring. Of them the Chishti order is the most visible.  Also at this time, eastern Sufism was developing more as a communal movement, whereas that of the West (including in al-Andalus), it remained largely an individual pursuit. ", This article is about Sufism. During the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq, who spread the Delhi sultanate towards the south, the Chistiyya spread its roots all across India. Currently active Sufi academics and publishers include Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee, Abdal Hakim Murad, Syed Waheed Ashraf and the Franco-Moroccan Faouzi Skali. We find among the Zoroastrians, Hatim, the best known Sufi of his time. Centuries later, with the support of Mughal rulers, his shrine became a place of pilgrimage. The same system of endowments could also be used to pay for a complex of buildings, such as that surrounding the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, including a lodge for Sufi seekers, a hospice with kitchens where these seekers could serve the poor and/or complete a period of initiation, a library, and other structures.  Scholars have generally seen this later flourishing in two different ways. Every age of the world has seen awakened souls, and as it is impossible to limit wisdom to any one period or place, so it is impossible to date the origin of Sufism. Nor are the Sufis a sect, being bound by no religious dogma however tenuous and using no regular place of worship. The earliest known theory of conscious evolution is of Sufi origin... Not Christian or Jew or Muslim, not HinduBuddhist, Sufi, or Zen. There have been hundreds of theories regarding the origin of Sufism, however none has been clearly distinguished for having referred to a specific date regarding the origin of Sufism, or a specific person to be credited with the first use of the word Sufi.  Hosein Nasr states that non-Islamic origin theories are false according to the point of view of Sufism. Recent academic work on these topics has focused on the role of Sufism in creating and propagating the culture of the Ottoman world, including a study of the various branches of the Naqshbandi and Khalwati orders, and in resisting European imperialism in North Africa and South Asia. There is a significant social dimension to Islamic mysticism that must be explored if the picture is to be complete. This mystical strand is designated in Arabic by the term tasawwuf, while in Persian the term irfan (gnosis) is also used. The individual is offered a "secret garden" for the growth of his understanding, but never required to become a monk, nun or hermit, like the more conventional mystics; and he thereafter claims to be enlightened by actual experience—"he who tastes, knows"—not by philosophic argument. Yet according to Ali el-Hujwiri, an early authoritative Sufi writer, the Prophet Mohammed himself said: "He who hears the voice of the Sufi people and does not say aamin [Amen] is recorded in God's presence as one of the heedless." When he was instructed by his teacher in 1907 to bring Sufism to the West, he articulated a "message of spiritual liberty" which reflects the universal, inclusive nature of Sufism. Social dimension to Islamic mysticism that emphasizes introspection and spiritual closeness with God Evolution since the time of the,... Is the most interesting aspect of Islam Islamic faith and practice in which Muslims the. 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